Autoranging

Constant power with variable input

More possibilities

With only one source

With the rising penetration of energy-consuming native direct current (DC) loads in commercial and residential applications, and the increasing focus on the adoption of energy-efficient systems to fulfill ambitious national goals, the debate over the relative merits of AC versus DC – based systems has intensified.

The components include converters (central rectifiers and DC-DC converters), DC circuit breakers, DC power distribution units (PDUs), and DC power management systems (monitoring and control) installed for building-level, floor / room-level, and device -level conversion.

Programmable DC power sources are an essential tool in product development and production testing of a wide range of electronic devices and systems. In many instances, functional test requires submitting the device-under-test (DUT) to a wide range of operating conditions. In some cases, the DUT draws constant power under variable input conditions.

Common examples are DC motor drives and regulated DC / DC supplies. In such circumstances, the ability of the programmable DC source to provide increased current at reduced output voltage is valuable. This ability is known as “Autoranging”. DC supplies without auto-ranging often requires users to oversize or use multiple supplies to test the DUT under varying input voltage conditions.

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Product series PSI 9000 with Auto-Ranging

Principle of Autoranging

“Autoranging” is a term when a programmable DC source automatically offers a wide output range of both voltage and current to maintain full power output across a wide operation range. The below diagram depicts both traditional square and auto-ranging operating.

The principal of operation is simple. The source automatically offers increased current at lower voltages which maximizes flexibility. This type of solution allows the use of a single source to address multiple voltage and current combinations.

Traditional DC supplies output base on a “square”, limited operating curve. Meaning full power is achieved only at full scale voltage since current is limited to a specified value. Applying the programmable DC supplies’ full scale voltage to a DUT is rare which means in most cases, the DC source is not utilized to the full power potential.

Application Example

The trend of 380 VDC power distribution for server farms has been suggested as an efficient method of power delivery within a data centers. Top manufacturers like Cisco and Juniper adopted such technology since it’s believed the simplified conversion result in significant energy savings.

For the purposes of this example, the Cisco Nexus 9500 Platform of Series Switches power specifications is a total of 3,000W with an input voltage range of 192 VDC – 400 VDC. This wide range of operation means the switch pulls considerably more current at low voltage operation.

AC/DC Power-Supply PropertiesCisco Nexus 9500 Plattform
Power3150W
Input voltage200 to 277V AC or
240 to 380V DC (normal)
192 to 400V DC (min. – max.)
Frequency47 Hz to 63 Hz
Efficiency90% or greater (20 to 100% load)

Table: Cisco Nexus 9500 Power Specifications

Input current is:

  • At 192 Vdc is 3,150W/192Vdc = 16.4 Adc
  • At 420 Vdc is 3,150W/420Vdc = 7.5 Adc

When selecting an appropriate programmable power source for test, Engineers must account for both the worst case voltage of 400 VDC and current of 16.4 ADC. Keep in mind that most design verification test is more extreme and could test down to a low as 180 Vdc. In that case, current would increase to 17.5 Adc. Let’s look at a square or dare we say, legacy Programmable DC Supply. Most manufacturers offer a 500 Vdc output model.

For sizing a to the application would mean:

  • 500 Vdc x 16,4 ADC = 8.200 W

In this case, a square operating source of at least 8.2 kW is required to serve both corner cases of test. Most manufacturers offer a 5, 10, 15 kW solution so Engineers would be forced to select a 10 kW solution, just to test a 3,150 W product. Below is an example that the 8/10 kW supply provides a maximum of 20 Adc.

Power4/5 kW8/10 kW12/15 kW
VoltageCurrentCurrentCurrent
500102030

Table: Square Operating Power Specifications

Autoranging Advantages

In the previous example, a 8.2 kW minimum supply is required to test the corner cases of the DUT requirements. The EA PSI 9500-30 3U is rated at 5,000W and provides 0-500 Vdc and up to 30 Adc.

PowerPSI 9500-30 3U
Rated voltage & range0 … 500 V
Rated current & range0 … 30 A
Rated power & range0 … 5000 W

Table: PSI 9500-30 3U Auto-Ranging Power Specifications

With a power rating of 5,000W, the source is capable of providing:

  • At 192 Vdc is 5,000W/192Vdc = 26.0 Adc
  • At 420 Vdc is 5,000W/420Vdc = 11.9 Adc

In this case, the Elektro-Automatik Autoranging supply is rated at just half the power of the legacy square supply, yet provides more current and allows ample headroom, even the DVT case down to 180 Vdc.

In general, power supplies are $ X / watt. The higher the power, the higher the cost. An autoranging power supply could be as much as half the cost of the legacy supply.

One thing to consider when selecting an autoranging power supply is to plan for the future or leverage into other applications. What if instead of 400 Vdc, the input voltage increased to say 600 Vdc? Why not use a 750 Vdc source?

The PSI 9750-20 3U is again rated at 5,000 W and provides 750 Vdc and up to 20 Adc. The source still meets application requirements, yet offers the benefit of higher voltage output. In the autoranging diagram, that’s the “Extra Range”.

Automated Test Systems

ATE integration is often simplified using Autoranging DC supplies. ATE designs usually contain multiple DC supplies to address various DUT requirements or a single oversized supply to meet high power, voltage and current requirements. Using an auto-ranging source could provide both cost and valuable space savings in ATE designs.

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Digital Remote Interfaces

Most Elektro-Automatik’s solutions offer industry leading selection of digital remote interfaces called “Anybus”. The modules simply plug into the rear panel for play-and-play operation. The vast selection of interfaces avoids the need for unstable and costly digital converters.

Available Interfaces
RS232 / CAN Open / Profibus / ProfiNet I/O 1-2 Port / Ethernet (1/2 Port) / ModBus TCP / CAN / EtherCAT

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High Power Solutions

Elektro-Automatik’s Autoranging solutions start at just 160W and extend through 480 kW. We offer complete turn-key integrated solutions that can be customized to your requirements.

Summary

Autoranging can be a valuable feature in today’s test environment. The benefits are easy to see. If you have questions or need assistance in specifying a solution, please contact us or give us a call. We’re happy to help!

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